Diabetes Management
Advice For Diabetics, How to Manage Type 1, Type 2 Diabetes

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Diabetes Management

The goal of diabetes management is to maintain blood glucose levels as close to the normal range as possible. The most effective management strategy for diabetes is an intensive program, aimed at firmer control of hemoglobin A1C and blood pressure.

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial

According to the 1993 Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), a 10-year study sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, diabetes patients who maintain blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible reduce the risk of developing major health complications of type 1 diabetes.

The study included 1,441 type 1 diabetics. It compared the effect of two treatment approaches - intensive management and standard management - on the development and progression of eye, kidney, and nerve health complications of diabetes. Intensive treatment aims to keep hemoglobin A1C as close to normal (6 percent) as possible. Hemoglobin A1C reflects average blood sugar over a 2-3 month period. Diabetics who maintained lower levels of blood glucose through intensive management had significantly lower rates of these complications. In addition, a follow-up study of DCCT diabetics indicated that the ability of intensive control to lower the longer term health risks of diabetes was sustained 8 years after the trial ended.

Prospective Diabetes Study

The 1998 United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study showed that intensive control of blood glucose and blood pressure reduced the risk of blindness, kidney disease, stroke, and heart attack in people with type 2 diabetes.

Reduction of Diabetes Health Problems Through Glucose Control

Research studies in America and Europe have found that improved blood pressure and glycemic control benefits people with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

In general, for every 1 percent reduction in results of A1C blood tests, the risk of developing microvascular diabetic complications (eye, kidney, and nerve disease) is reduced by 40 percent.

Controlling blood pressure can lower cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke) by about 33 to 50 percent and can reduce microvascular disease (eye, kidney, and nerve disease) by approximately 33 percent. Typically, for every 10 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) reduction in systolic blood pressure, the risk for any complication related to diabetes is reduced by 12 percent.

Controlling cholesterol and lipids (HDL, LDL, and triglycerides) can lower cardiovascular complications by 20 to 50 percent.

Help to Manage Your Diabetes

Here are some organizations which offer help and information on diabetes:

National Diabetes Education Program
Phone toll free: 1-800-438-5383

The NDEP is a nationwide initiative of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It is an inclusive, partnership-based program involving many diverse public and private sector partner organizations. The goal of the program is to reduce the morbidity and mortality of diabetes and its complications.

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
1 Information Way, Bethesda, MD 20892-3560
800/GET LEVEL (800/438-5383) or 301/654-3327

American Association of Diabetes Educators
100 West Monroe, 4th Floor, Chicago, IL 60603-1901
800/338-3633 for names of diabetes educators
312/424-2426 to order publications

American Diabetes Association
1701 North Beauregard Street
Alexandria VA 22311
Telephone 703-549-1500
1-800-ADA-ORDER to order publications toll free
1-800-342-2383 (800-DIABETES) for diabetes information

International Diabetic Athletes Association
1647-B West Bethany Home Road, Phoenix, AZ 85015
800/898-IDAA or 602/433-2113
602/433-9331 (fax)

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
The Diabetes Research Foundation
120 Wall Street, 19th Floor, New York, NY 10005-4001
800/JDF-CURE or 800/223-1138
212/785-9595 (fax)

National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
1 Information Way, Bethesda MD 20892-3560
301/654-3327 (phone); 301/907-8906 (fax)

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Carbs-Information.com provides general information about the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), low GI diets, GI values for all food groups, health problems of high blood glucose including metabolic disorders such as pre-diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism as well as type 1 and type 2 diabetes. But no information is intended as a substitute for medical advice. Copyright 2003-2021.